There are three types of specialty concretes: Pervious Concrete, Nano Concrete and Microbial Concrete.
Pervious concrete is a mix of specially graded coarse aggregate, cement, water and little-to-no fine aggregates. This concrete is also known as “no-fines” or porous concrete. Mixing the ingredients in a carefully controlled process creates a paste that coats and bonds the aggregate particles. The hardened concrete contains interconnected air voids totalling approximately 15 to 25 percent. Water runs through the voids in the pavement to the soil underneath. Air entrainment admixtures are often used in freeze–thaw climates to minimize the possibility of frost damage.
Nano concrete is created by High-energy mixing (HEM) of cement, sand and water using a specific consumed power of 30 – 600 watt/kg for a netspecific energy consumption of at least 5 kJ/kg of the mix. A plasticizer or a superplasticizer is then added to the activated mixture which can later be mixed with aggregates in a conventional concrete mixer.
Bacteria such as Bacillus pasteurii, Bacillus pseudofirmus, Bacillus cohnii, Sporosarcina pasteuri, and Arthrobacter crystallopoietes increase the compression strength of concrete through their biomass. Not all bacteria increase the strength of concrete significantly with their biomass. Bacillus sp. CT-5. can reduce corrosion of reinforcement in reinforced concrete by up to four times.